Every beginning of the year, Cuba reports one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the continent , only compared to developed countries, figures that are not transcendent because they are repeated, as they reflect the political will of the Cuban State and its health system to preserve life of all pregnant women, puerperal women and infants in the country.
At the end of 2020, the year that tested the health capacities of governments around the world, the Directorate of Medical Records and Statistics of the Ministry of Public Health refers, as preliminary data, that 105,030 were born on the island children, 4,686 less than the previous year, and the nation registered an infant mortality rate of 4.9 for every thousand live births, 36 deaths less than the previous year.
No deaths under one year were reported in 32 municipalities of the country, which represent 19.05 percent. This indicator, by province, had the following behavior:
- Pinar del Río: Mantua, Minas de Matahambre, La Palma.
- Artemis: Candelaria.
- Havana: Rule.
- Mayabeque: Batabanó, Bejucal, Madruga, Nueva Paz, Santa Cruz del Norte.
- Matanzas: Ciénaga de Zapata, Perico.
- Villa Clara: Quemado de Güines, Encrucijada, Santo Domingo, Manicaragua.
- Cienfuegos: Lajas.
- Sancti Spíritus: Taguasco.
- Ciego de Ávila: Florencia, Majagua.
- Camagüey: Mines.
- Las Tunas: Majibacoa, Manatí.
- Holguín: Gibara, Antilla, Calixto García, Frank País.
- Granma: Cautious Christ, Guise.
- Santiago de Cuba: Mella.
- Guantánamo: Yateras and Caimanera.
The provinces that had the lowest infant mortality rates per thousand live births were Holguín (3.4), Sancti Spíritus (3.4), Mayabeque (3.5), Villa Clara (3.7) and Pinar del Río (3.7), territories that achieved lower indicators to 4.
Compared to 2019, the country obtained better results in several indicators. In 2020, Cuba reports the lowest mortality rate due to congenital malformations in history with 0.7 per thousand live births and the mortality rate in children under five years was reduced from 6.6 to 6.2 per thousand live births in compared to the previous year.
Likewise, the pre-school mortality rate decreased from 3.5 to 2.8 per 10,000 inhabitants between one and four years of age , with 37 fewer deaths. The school mortality rate also decreased from 2.0 to 1.6 per 10,000 inhabitants between the ages of five and 14, with 50 fewer deaths in this age group. Survival in neonatology services in the country increased from 98.5 to 98.8 percent.
The main causes of death in children under one year of age were associated, fundamentally, with premature birth and delayed uterine growth, while in the rest of the pediatric ages they were associated with malignant tumors, accidents and congenital anomalies.
Despite the epidemiological situation in the country and the world, Cuba closes the year without reporting maternal or infant deaths from COVID-19. During the confrontation with the pandemic, the health protocols included from the first moment the care of pregnant women, postpartum women and pediatric patients in a differentiated way and essential services were guaranteed so as not to regress the achievements of the Maternal and Child Care Program (PAMI ).
From March to date, a total of 95 pregnant women and 17 puerperal women have been treated as confirmed COVID-19 patients, all with a favorable clinical evolution. Similarly, 1,279 pediatric patients were diagnosed, with adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 being the most affected, and by the end of the year, 90 percent had recovered.
In the year ending, the maternal mortality rate is 40 per 100,000 live births, which represents one more death in relation to the previous year, whose rate was 37.4. During the year, pregnancy-related diseases increased and a reduction was achieved in the indirect maternal mortality component (those related to pre-existing diseases). The reduction of this indicator continues to be a priority of the National Health System.
By 2021, actions to control the preconception risk of women with diseases of childbearing age will be strengthened, in order to achieve maternity in adequate conditions from the beginning of gestation, for which the Program of the Family Doctor and Nurse.
Control of maternal diseases during pregnancy will also be maintained, ensuring the reduction of preterm labor, delayed uterine growth, and hypertensive disorders.
As every year, the Maternal and Child Care Program will continue among the priorities of the National Health System and actions that guarantee superior results will continue to be strengthened, which translates into better perinatal health and healthy babies.